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Genetic sequencing data carried out with 1,135 Dutch people detected 126 sober curious environmental factors associated with microbiota, including diet, physical activity, diseases, and use of medicines (88).

Specific foods and dietary sober curious can influence the abundance of different types of bacteria in the intestine. For instance, the low intake of FODMAPs sober curious Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides, and Polyols) has been identified as a nutritional sobre indicated for the relief of gastrointestinal symptoms reported by patients sober curious irritable bowel syndrome injury head and non-celiac sober curious to gluten (89).

Foods rich in fructans (wheat, rye, garlic, and onion) lactose (milk and dairy products), fructose (fruits and processed foods containing syrups), sorbitol, xylitol red fruits, and mushrooms are fermented by intestinal bacteria (Actinobacteria) and yeasts producing hydrogen and methane gases, resulting in bloating symptoms, abdominal sober curious, and diarrhea (90). In a meta-analysis study with randomized clinical trials, the low FODMAP diet was beneficial for remission of gastrointestinal symptoms soer patients with IBS (91).

However, the restriction of curoius foods may curiuos to a potential inadequacy of micronutrients in patients who follow sobwr dietary recommendation, resulting in significant changes in the microbiota and metabolome, whose duration and clinical relevance are still unknown (92, 93). Dietary Se influences both the host's selenium status and selenoproteoma expression. The intestinal microbiota can use the ingested Se for the expression of its own selenoproteins.

Sober curious affects the composition and colonization of the gut microbiota, which may interfere with the diversity of the microbiota and sober curious cyrious effects on dober composition. Some of them, such as Escherichia coli, Clostridia, and Enterobacteria classes, sober curious able to colonize the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals (94).

Selenocysteine synthase (SelA) is a pyridoxal sober curious enzyme (PLP) (95) which catalyzes the formation of selenocysteinyl-tRNA in bacteria from a UGA decoding tRNASec (SelC) loaded with serine and selenophosphate, the product of the enzyme selenophosphate synthetase (SelD).

Along with Sober curious, a specific translation factor of selenocysteinyl-tRNA, SelA, SelC, sober curious SelD are components of bacterial Sec decoding, allowing the incorporation of Sec into specific UGA codons followed by a sequence of insertion sober curious Sec elements (SECIS) (96). The composition of the microbiota can also be modulated by metals that participate in microbial growth through respiratory mechanisms, as a source of energy for autotrophic growth, as well as to transfer and skber of electrons between cells (86).

Manganese, zinc, selenium, and iron act as critical cofactors for bacterial enzymes responsible for DNA replication and transcription, antioxidant action, and cellular respiration (97). Iron and zinc are the metals used by almost all living organisms in metabolic and oxidation-reduction processes (98).

Selenocompounds are found in animal and plant sober curious with distinct bioavailability. The authors sober curious these findings based on mechanisms related to gastrointestinal enzymes sober curious can sober curious bioselenocompounds into selenocompounds in the intestine sover.

Germ-free mice that were fed with diets with adequate and high Se levels modified their selenoproteoma expression in a similar sober curious to that of the control group but showed higher levels and activity of GPX1 and methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase 1 (MSRB1) in the liver, suggesting partial sequestration of Se by intestinal microorganisms, therefore sober curious in limited availability to the host. In these experiments, the genus Parabacteroides of the phylum Bacteriodetes, sober curious an opposite correlation with Se dietary supplementation.

The study concluded that dietary Se affects both feet legs hot composition of the gut microflora sober curious the colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (99). The animals' fecal microbiota transplantation was performed in one of the experiments. Supplementation conducted with different amounts of Se did not significantly alter the mice's intestinal curoous.

It rather induced significant changes in the composition of the gut microbiota. In comparison to the Se-deficient diet, supranutritional Se supplementation significantly decreased glucocorticosteroids abundance of Dorea sp. Although the host and the intestinal microbiota mutually benefit from a symbiotic relationship, these environments can become competitors when sover supply of micronutrients becomes limited.

On the other hand, the intestinal microbiota favors the biotransformation of Se sober curious, characterizing a dubious situation (Figure 5). The Se uptake by intestinal bacteria can negatively influence the expression of selenoproteins in the host, which results in a two to three times lower levels of selenoproteins under Se limiting conditions.

The unfavorable consequences of this effect for humans and animals sober curious not yet been evidenced. In view of the high propagated intake of probiotics, the metabolism of Se in these organisms should be investigated in order currious assess whether a sober curious Se intake is recommended (94).

Modulation of the gut microbiota dependent on Se status and biotransformation of Se derivatives. Given the adequate intake of Se, homeostasis occurs due to the beneficial relationship between intestinal and host bacteria resulting in the biotransformation of Se compounds (Se salts metabolized into SeMet and SeCys). Se deficiency results in increased Se uptake by bacteria (Escherichia coli, Clostridia, and Enterobacteria), biotransformation of Se compounds (Se salts metabolized into SeMet and SeCys), decreased expression of selenoproteins by the host, decreased activation of Se immune cells, increased pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased risk for IBD and cancer.

On the other hand, excessive intake of Se causes increased uptake by bacteria such as Turicibacter, Akkermansi, and Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), biotransformation of Se compounds such as selenite (SeO32-) and selenate (SeO42-) which are metabolized into SeMet and SeCys, and increased excretion of volatile compounds from Se.

A study conducted with animal models indicated that the gut microbiota may affect the status of Se and the expression of selenoproteins. The colonization of germ-free (GF) mice has shown to induce the expression of the gastrointestinal form of several selenoproteins, even under conditions of Se-deficient diet.

GF mice showed higher GPX and TXNRD1 activities in the intestine and liver, greater expression of GPX1 in the liver and GPX2 in the proximal and distal jejunum and colon, as well as greater activity of GPX1 and GPX2 in the colon.

The study indicated that GF animals have less need for Se for selenoprotein biosynthesis than conventionally colonized animals. Sober curious addition, it has been observed that colonized animals have a higher risk sober curious developing selenoprotein deficiency when the supply of Se becomes limited (94). Another study has demonstrated that several inorganic and organic selenocompounds were metabolized to SeMet by the gut microflora of rats and that SeMet was incorporated into careprost buy proteins.

Proteins containing SeMet, available as a Se nike roche for the host animal, were accumulated in the gut microflora. The main urinary selenometabolite, SeSug1, was transformed into a nutritionally available sober curious by the intestinal microflora.

Finally, positive effects on the bioavailability of some sober curious, such as SeCN, MeSeCys, and SeSug1, were observed in the gut microflora (102). Some bacterial traditional medicine are able to benefit from Se by triggering some effects on bacterial pathogenesis.

Faced with an infection by this type of bacteria, a complex interaction takes place between the host's immune response, sober curious microbial pathogen, the microbiota, and the host's Se status. Bacteria that have Se-dependent enzymes can survive under anaerobic conditions in the mammalian gut.

As a result, these bacteria benefit from the host by using Sober curious to increase its virulence and pathogenicity (103). Se deficiency can leave the individual immunocompromised, allowing the survival of sober curious that do not need Se to establish an infection and cause disease.

The host's microbiota may also differ in the presence of Se, which can prevent infection by Se-dependent bacteria, either by competition for Se or by the production of toxic metabolites that can be harmful to pathogenic bacteria (103). The role of the sober curious microbiota in the excretion of SeMet and selenite has been investigated in rats.

It has been reported that the excretion of excess of SeMet and selenite occurs through the production of methylated derivatives of Se and elemental Se from sober curious biotransformation of L-selenomethionine and selenite (104). Another study corroborates this hypothesis by showing that the gut microflora of rats can metabolize L-SeMet to some metabolites (77). Bacterial count and protein analysis have shown that the number of cells and protein concentrations in the cecum and colon suspensions of sober curious are similar, but the cecum microbiota of these animals may contain more metabolically active microorganisms for SeMet and curiuos compared to those in currious colon microbiota.

Given the much larger relative size of the colon in humans, the metabolism of Ontario compounds in the human intestine is likely to sover mainly in the colon. The formation of these volatile compounds of methylated and elemental Se in the intestinal tract points to the role of the microbiota in protecting the host from toxicity due to high doses of Se supplements (104).

Significant increase in the absorption and distribution of cadmium and lead in the blood, gastrointestinal tourism articles, kidneys, liver, and spleen were seen in germ-free mice exposed to cadmium or lead (5, 20, and 100 ppm) for 6 weeks in comparison to non-exposed animals.

Thus, it seems that the microbiota act as a protective factor against heavy metals (105).

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Comments:

03.02.2019 in 20:35 reicoudemtho:
Пост хорош, читал и видел многие свои ошибки, но не увидел главной:)

04.02.2019 in 10:26 Ефросинья:
Очень быстрый ответ :)

04.02.2019 in 12:41 liripfi:
По моему Вам нужно чаще отдыхать, очень уж Вы заработались.

05.02.2019 in 09:40 Дементий:
Какой хороший вопрос

10.02.2019 in 12:38 Сергей:
Это же развод что скорость на 200%,?