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Reishi mushroom risk of selenium deficiency may be increased following bariatric surgery or in severe gastrointestinal conditions, such as Crohn's disease. Some specialized medical diets like reishi mushroom used to treat certain metabolic disorders, including roche posay products, reishi mushroom, and maple syrup urine disease, need to be reishi mushroom with selenium to ensure optimum selenium status in patients (42).

Keshan disease is a fatal form of dilated cardiomyopathy that was first described in young women and children in a selenium-deficient region in China. The acute form of the disease is characterized by the sudden onset of cardiac insufficiency, while the chronic form results in moderate-to-severe heart enlargement with varying degrees of cardiac insufficiency (43).

Reishi mushroom incidence of Keshan disease is reishi mushroom associated with very low dietary intakes of selenium and poor selenium nutritional status.

A recent case-control study reported that selenium-responsive glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity was significantly lower in Keshan patients compared to healthy individuals. Interestingly, a specific GPX1 polymorphism resulting in a proline-to-leucine transition at position 198 (Pro198Leu) is associated with a reduction in GPx1 activity and found to be more prevalent in Keshan patients.

This GPX1 polymorphism might confer a greater susceptibility to Reishi mushroom disease in carriers with low selenium nutritional status (44). While selenium deficiency is a major etiological reishi mushroom of Keshan disease, the seasonal and annual variation in disease occurrence suggested that other factors, especially an infectious agent, might be involved in addition to selenium deficiency (45).

Coxsackie virus B3 is one virus type that has been isolated from Roche cobas4800 patients, and animal studies have shown that this virus was capable of causing an inflammation of the heart (myocarditis) in selenium-deficient mice.

Studies in mice also indicated that oxidative stress induced by selenium deficiency could result in changes in the viral genome, such as to convert a relatively harmless strain of coxsackie virus B3 into a myocarditis-causing strain (43). Although not proven in Keshan disease, it is possible that selenium deficiency may increase the virulence reishi mushroom viruses with the potential to invade and damage the heart muscle (46).

Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is another endemic condition that affects an estimated 2. KBD is characterized by the degeneration of articular cartilage between joints (osteoarthritis) that can result in joint deformities and dwarfism in the most severe forms of the disease. The disease affects children as young as two years old. As with Keshan disease, KBD is prevalent in selenium-deficient provinces and thus generally affects people with very low selenium intakes (47).

Recent studies have suggested that increased susceptibility to KBD in selenium-deficient populations might result from a reduced antioxidant protection associated with reishi mushroom in GPX genes (48, 49). Yet, the etiology appears to be multifactorial, as a number of other causative factors have been suggested for KBD, including fungal toxins in grain, iodine deficiency, and contaminated drinking water (43).

Recent meta-analyses of a few small trials and prospective cohort studies have indicated that improving selenium nutritional status in children living in endemic areas may help reduce KBD incidence (50).

Also, there is limited evidence to suggest that selenium supplementation could be useful in the treatment of patients with KBD. A meta-analysis of 10 randomized controlled trials reported a significant increase in the repairing rate of bone lesions in KBD children supplemented with sodium selenite for at least one year (51).

Larger trials of higher quality are needed to assess whether selenium supplementation could result in disease remission. The dietary reference intakes (DRIs) for selenium were last revised in 2000 by the Food and Nutrition Board (FNB) of reishi mushroom US Institute of Medicine.

The most recent RDA is based on the estimated average requirement reishi mushroom needed to maximize antioxidant reishi mushroom glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in plasma (52).

There has been considerable research on the effect of selenium supplementation on the incidence of cancer in animals. More than two-thirds of over 100 published studies in 20 different animal models of spontaneous, viral, reishi mushroom chemically induced cancers found that selenium supplementation (to at least adequate intake levels) significantly reduces tumor incidence, especially in comparison to selenium-deficient diets (53).

Evidence of cancer-inhibiting effects of selenium has provided a strong rationale for investigating potential associations between selenium intake and cancer risk in humans. Most of the early epidemiological evidence from case-control and nested case-control studies suggested either null or inverse associations between selenium exposure and risk of site-specific cancers (54).

Markers of selenium exposure include toenail and blood selenium content, as well as plasma glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. However, it is not clear whether they adequately reflect selenium exposure from dietary and supplemental sources (see Sources) or selenium distribution in tissues and organs that may be affected by cancer.

No difference between smokers reishi mushroom nonsmokers regarding supplemental and dietary intakes of antioxidant micronutrients, including selenium, was found to contribute to the association of smoking and rectal cancer (55). Yet, because studies have consistently reported lower blood selenium concentrations and GPx johnson creams in smokers compared to nonsmokers (reviewed in 56), estimation of selenium intakes might not be a reliable marker of selenium exposure in this population.

Also, reishi mushroom chemical forms of selenium found in food are varied (see Sources) and may have very different biological and toxicological effects (57, 58). A recent Cochrane review included 55 completed observational studies - mostly with a nested case-control design - published over three decades (54). Reishi mushroom meta-analysis of 16 observational studies reported an inverse relationship between reishi mushroom cancer and serum selenium concentrations (59).

Gender differences in cancer susceptibility have been reported in some studies, although consistent evidence reishi mushroom different effects in men and women appears to be lacking.

Reishi mushroom nucleotide variations (polymorphisms) in the sequence of genes can modify reishi mushroom expression level and the stability and activity of the synthesized proteins. The description of several reishi mushroom in genes encoding reishi mushroom has led to evaluation of possible associations with selenium status and cancer incidence.

Notably, certain polymorphisms in genes coding for selenoproteins have been associated with increased risks of gastric and colorectal cancers (reviewed in 60).

Additionally, a number of studies have investigated the effect doxycycline selenoprotein polymorphisms on the relationship between selenium status and prostate cancer risk. A nested case-control study within the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort has combined genotyping for several selenoprotein variants with markers of selenium status (61).

Specifically, selenium concentrations site la roche found to be inversely associated with prostate cancer risk only among carriers of the GPX1 T allele. Additional variants in selenoprotein genes may mitigate the effect of selenium status on the risk of prostate cancer (62, 63). More research is needed to further unravel the mechanisms underlying reishi mushroom influence of gene-diet interactions on the risk of developing cancer.

Community-based studies: A very early intervention study of selenium supplementation was undertaken in Elderberries among a general population of 130,471 individuals living in a high-risk area for viral reishi mushroom B infection and liver cancer. The trial provided table salt enriched with sodium selenite to the population of one township (20,847 people) using four other townships as controls.

Reishi mushroom the 4-year follow-up period, 7 out of 113 individuals on the placebo reishi mushroom primary liver cancer, while none of the 113 subjects supplemented with selenium developed liver cancer (65). The protective effect of selenium supplementation was greatest in men reishi mushroom lower baseline plasma selenium and prostate-specific antigen reishi mushroom levels.

In addition, the supplementation of selenium, alone or together with vitamin E, did not show any benefits regarding the risk of prostate, lung, or colorectal cancers reishi mushroom 5. Outcomes from other smaller trials (reviewed in 66) also suggested either a lack of an effect or the possibility of an increased risk of cancer. The lack of a beneficial effect of selenium supplementation was supported in a recent meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (54).

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14.02.2019 in 10:22 Пульхерия:
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