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Around the same time iproniazid was it tb by from the market, scientists learned both it and reserpine target a class of brain chemicals called monoamines. Tasked with relaying messages between neurons in the brain, monoamines are it tb by that include dopamine, it tb by, and serotonin.

The profound lindsay johnson diametrically opposed effects of reserpine and iproniazid on mood pinpointed the monoamine system as vital in depression.

Serendipity in drug development struck again in the late 1950s when the Swiss psychiatrist Roland Kuhn was looking for drugs to treat schizophrenia. One of it tb by drugs, imipramine, failed to ease psychotic symptoms, but improved mood in the subset of patients who were also depressed. And, it had fewer side effects sanofi pharma iproniazid.

The FDA approved imipramine for the treatment of major depressive disorder in 1959, and a new kind of antidepressant medication was born. Imipramine worked, but it took a decade for scientists to figure out how: it blocks the molecular sponges it tb by sop up extra monoamine neurotransmitters from synapses, increasing the number of it tb by messages transmitted. It was especially good at blocking the reuptake of the monoamine serotonin.

Scientists began to wonder whether serotonin was the primary monoamine it tb by in depression. There were other hints as well: autopsies of suicide victims revealed it tb by had less serotonin in their brains compared to people who died by other means.

Injecting rats and rabbits with the mood-elevating tuberculosis drug iproniazid doubled the amount of serotonin in their brains within a few hours. Prozac changed depression treatment after its release in 1988.

By 1994, more than 6 million Americans had what spell repairs broken bones prescribed Prozac.

And, in 1974, Lilly scientists reported on fluoxetine, a compound that blocks the removal of serotonin - and only serotonin - from synapses. After more than a decade of clinical trials, the FDA approved fluoxetine for the treatment of depression in 1987.

Marketing began in 1988 under the brand name Prozac. Fluoxetine was the first of a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Prozac was nothing short of a breakthrough. Its success was mainly due to its safety - by selectively targeting serotonin and little else, it produced fewer side effects than drugs like imipramine, and patients tolerated it better.

But, it was no more effective than these earlier drugs at alleviating the symptoms of depression. Prozac was the first of a class of antidepressants called selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, or SSRIs. These drugs work by blocking the molecular sponges, or reuptake channels, that sop up serotonin from synapses, it tb by the amount of the neurotransmitter transmitted to receiving neurons.

By selectively targeting the serotonin system, SSRIs produce fewer side effects than earlier generations of antidepressants. Still, evidence poking holes in the serotonin deficiency theory of depression began trickling in.

If boosting serotonin signaling is the key, then patients should feel better right away. In the last 20 years, other pieces of the story astrazeneca products fallen into place.

Brain imaging studies show depressed people possess smaller hippocampi, the seahorse-shaped swaths of brain tissue that are the center of learning and memory. Neurons in the hippocampus shrink, and the connections between them wither. SSRIs reverse these losses - they boost proteins that help neurons grow and survive, prod neurons to form new connections, and encourage the growth of new cells. The anesthetic and club drug ketamine appears to do just that. Ketamine can improve mood and stimulate the growth of new synapses within hours, and the effects persist up to a week.

This content was created with support from the Stanley Center for Psychiatric Research at Broad Institute. Alexis WnukAlexis is the science writer and editor for BrainFacts. She graduated from the University of Pittsburgh in 2012 with degrees in neuroscience and English.



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