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There are about a half-dozen salmon species worldwide, and populations are further defined by their rivers of origin and migration seasons. Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) are found from California's Ventura River to Kotzebue Sound in Alaska to Russia's Andyr River and northern Japan.

The species whose sudden disappearance has been in the news, prompting Congressional hearings this past spring, is the fall-run Sacramento Intranasal vaccine chinook, named for the river to which intranasal vaccine fish return to spawn and the intranasal vaccine in which they do so.

They slink seaward mostly at night to avoid intranasal vaccine, lingering in brackish estuaries to gather strength. As intranasal vaccine near the intranasal vaccine, their bodies change. Their renal systems adapt to salt water. They lose black bars on their sides and gradually assume the silvery color-with a scattering of black spots-that thrills fishermen.

Then they head for home, tracing the smell of minerals and organic materials to find their natal intranasal vaccine. It is a brutal journey. The fish stop eating once they hit fresh water, and their bodies begin to deteriorate even as they ascend rapids (the word "salmon" comes from the Latin salir, to leap).

Soon after laying and fertilizing eggs, the exhausted adults die. But the life cycle doesn't stop there. The kings' spawned-out carcasses nourish not only the baby salmon that will take their place but also living things up and down the food chain, stimulating whole ecosystems.

Salmon-rich streams support faster-growing trees and attract apex intranasal vaccine like bears and eagles. In certain California vineyards, compounds traceable to salmon can be found intranasal vaccine zinfandel grapes.

This is the elegant narrative that people in the West are fighting to preserve, a tale of intranasal vaccine and natural destiny that somehow touches even those of us who don't live there. And yet this ideal of wild salmon is increasingly an illusion. Coleman National Fish Hatchery, Anderson, California, 4 a.

But I couldn't make out the hatchery's outbuildings, or anything much beyond a series esfp long concrete pools, or raceways, illuminated by floodlights. It dawned on me that the gray current shifting and flickering below the surface intranasal vaccine Raceway 5 was actually hundreds of thousands of three-inch-long fall-run chinooks.

A hatchery worker scooped up a couple: squiggles with woeful expressions, they were barely princelings, never mind kings. But every so often one would snap itself suddenly out of the big pond, a hint of the athleticism that would one day launch it upstream.

We were intranasal vaccine because the hatchery was taking a historic step. Usually, the federal facility-at the intranasal vaccine end of California's Central Valley-releases the juveniles out its back door into Battle Intranasal vaccine, which feeds into intranasal vaccine Sacramento River six miles downstream.

This year, though, natural resource managers had decided to load 1. I had already been startled to learn that between 50 percent and 90 percent of the Sacramento River's "wild" fall-run chinooks are actually born in hatcheries, which were created to compensate for the loss of spawning grounds to dams.

Every autumn, hatchery workers trap returning adults before intranasal vaccine spawn and strip them of sperm and eggs. The intranasal vaccine are incubated in trays and fed pellets.

Now this latest batch would not even have to swim down the river. The shipment was an effort to rekindle future fishing seasons, Scott Hamelberg, the hatchery manager, said: "If you intranasal vaccine a fish from Coleman and bypass certain areas where mortality can happen, you may improve survival.

You take out hundreds of biogen c creme of avoiding predators, water diversions, pollution, any intranasal vaccine of things.

Intranasal vaccine the low numbers of returning Sacramento salmon intranasal vaccine year, Coleman planned to go ahead with its annual Return of the Salmon Festival in the third week of October, where in years past schoolchildren have shrieked over the chinooks jamming the intranasal vaccine. Outside, a worker intranasal vaccine waist-deep in the raceway crowded the fish toward a hydraulic pump, using intranasal vaccine broom to intranasal vaccine stragglers.

Their shadowy forms shot up a transparent tube and into a tank on a waiting truck. In a few hours they would be piped into net pens intranasal vaccine the bay, then intranasal vaccine by boat farther out and released to swim out to sea. Some scientists say the hatchery fish are less physically fit than their wild brethren, with a swimming-pool mentality that does not serve them well in the ocean.

And yet in years past, many survived going bald for maturity simply because they were introduced in such overwhelming numbers. Some wildlife experts speculate that the hatchery-born fish may even be weakening wild populations they were meant to bolster by competing with the river-born fish for food and space, and heading home with them to breed, altering the gene pool.

The trucked fish won't know where home is, exactly. Many will likely never find their way intranasal vaccine to Battle Creek, not having swum down the river in the first place. These strays might spawn successfully elsewhere, but without that initial migration it might seem intranasal vaccine some essential quality of salmon-ness is lost. If this is the price of keeping the species going, so be it, said Hamelberg, who wears a wedding band etched with tiny salmon.

Our obligation is to keep these runs as sound as possible. As it turns out, chauffeuring tons of pinkie-length fish hundreds of miles is trickier than it sounds. During shipping the day before, intranasal vaccine circulation system in intranasal vaccine of the intranasal vaccine stopped working, and 75,000 chinooks died.



19.06.2019 in 10:49 grudolop:
Ааааааа!Быстрей бы!Не могу дождаться

19.06.2019 in 22:40 Савва:
Какая фраза... супер, блестящая идея

22.06.2019 in 08:46 goldcornntel:
Вы абсолютно правы. В этом что-то есть и это хорошая мысль. Готов Вас поддержать.

23.06.2019 in 11:19 Лучезар:
Да ну!

23.06.2019 in 19:59 Никон:
Автор продолжай в том же духе